The case discusses the acceptance and implementation of the Nairobi Metropolitan Transmission Ring (NMR) as one solution to address Kenya’s electricity supply issues. The NMR project required the balancing of multiple influencing parties to satisfy national development criteria, highlighted by Kenya’s Vision 2030, with multilateral financing prerequisites. While the case focuses on decisions made at a national level for development within one city, it addresses public and private concerns, individual and national economics, income inequality, environmental externalities, and rural vs.
Chief Minister Taib has set in place a massive sustainable dam project (SCORE) to increase energy production throughout Malaysia and develop Sarawak’s economy by bringing foreign industrial investment to the area. The SCORE project dams have been qualified as sustainable by the International Hydropower Association’s (IHA) Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Forum, and construction on the Murum Dam, the third of a potential 12 dams, was completed in 2013.
This case evaluates the premade decision of the Kigali City Council (KCC) to incorporate urban agriculture into the city’s long-term development agenda, as the key tool to address the problem of food security. A land-scarce country characterized by a predominantly rural population, Rwanda has a history of unsustainable approaches to food security, exacerbated by the collapse of the coffee industry in the 1980s and the genocide in the 1990s. After the genocide, international donors swept in to rebuild the war-torn country, which included projects designed to combat food insecurity.
In China’s 12th Five Year Plan (2011-2015), the central government outlines ambitious targets for expanding domestic wind power generation. These targets are part of the government’s greater effort to reduce reliance upon thermal plants, which have produced unprecedented levels of pollution in recent years. As the world’s largest wind power collective, which is expected to reach 40 GW in capacity by 2020, the Jiuquan Wind Power Base serves as a paragon of China’s unbridled expansion into renewables.
Until the 1970s, Johannesburg’s Central Business District (CBD) was the economic center of South Africa and, arguably, of the entire African continent. In the 1980s, however, a series of events and an epidemic of violence led to a mass exodus from the CBD to Johannesburg’s safer northern suburbs. The CBD became a virtual ‘no-go’ zone and quickly lost its significance as the center of Johannesburg. The city shifted to a decentralized sprawl and the CBD fell into a state of abandoned disrepair.
The Brazilian city of São Paulo, capital of the State of São Paulo and Brazil’s largest metropolitan area, currently faces its most severe drought in decades. The drought, coupled with extreme heat, population growth and urbanization, has stressed water resources from the Cantareira water system, which serves more than half of the metro area. Water levels in the system have sunk to 16 percent of the system’s capacity. Available water supply from the system is expected to continue to decrease with the arrival of the dry season in April.
Every year extreme sandstorms created by strong winds blowing southwest from the Gobi Desert devastate air quality levels, bring transportation and outdoor activities to a grinding halt, and create major headaches for urban life throughout cities in eastern China, including Shanghai and Beijing. The past decades have seen increases in the severity and regularity of these sandstorms as deserts in China expand due to continuing degradation of agricultural areas and grasslands. This spreading desertification presents a challenge both for major cities and rural livelihoods.
India’s economic reforms of the 1990s have led to an exponential growth in industrial and commercial activities, which in turn has led to rapid urbanization. India’s capital city, New Delhi, has been struggling to provide its approximately 17 million residents with adequate amenities. This struggle is particularly prominent in the nearly 700 squatter settlements known as Jhuggi Jhopri clusters (JJ clusters), also known as Delhi’s slums, which are on public land owned by multiple civic bodies.
Qatar has received much attention since winning the bid to host the 2022 World Cup, and not all of the attention has been positive. A major component of Qatar’s winning bid to host the World Cup was the small nations emphasis on sustainability. In order to achieve this vision for sustainability many innovative technologies have been proposed to deal with issues of heat and energy production. While stadium construction is still in its infancy, controversies over human rights violations, expenses, and cultural aspects have already erupted.
This case study addresses the challenge of improving Haiti’s energy supply. Substantial damages caused by the 2010 earthquake to power infrastructure had exacerbated existing weaknesses in the municipal grid. Moreover, the earthquake had exposed serious underlying problems in the energy industry that hampered economic growth—and now, the disaster recovery. Insufficient supply, inadequate service, and high fuel costs plagued the electricity sector and its state-owned utility.